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Alge Alge Alge General characteristics VideoALGE (Reupload) [Alge Bikini Bottom Version] Există alge monocelulare (clorela, claminominada ș. a.) și alge pluricelulare (oscilatoria, ulotriscul, laminaria ș. a.). Dimensiunile lor variază de la miimi de milimetru la zeci de metri. Componența chimică a corpului algelor este în funcție de bazinul de apă (mare, râu, lac, iaz) în care cresc. De regulă, algele populează grosul apei, se dezvoltă pe fundul bazinelor sau pe. Algele (lat. Algae - „iarbă de mare”) constituie un grup diversificat din Regnul Chromista, Regnul Plante dar și unele organisme din Regnul Monera Cuprins 1 Caracteristicile generale ale algelor. Algae are simple plants that can range from the microscopic (microalgae), to large seaweeds (macroalgae), such as giant kelp more than one hundred feet in length. Microalgae include both cyanobacteria, (similar to bacteria, and formerly called “blue-green algae”) as well as green, brown and red algae.
Unlike macroalgae , which were clearly viewed as plants, microalgae were frequently considered animals because they are often motile. Although used as a taxonomic category in some pre-Darwinian classifications, e.
Throughout the 20th century, most classifications treated the following groups as divisions or classes of algae: cyanophytes , rhodophytes , chrysophytes , xanthophytes , bacillariophytes , phaeophytes , pyrrhophytes cryptophytes and dinophytes , euglenophytes , and chlorophytes.
Later, many new groups were discovered e. With the abandonment of plant-animal dichotomous classification, most groups of algae sometimes all were included in Protista , later also abandoned in favour of Eukaryota.
However, as a legacy of the older plant life scheme, some groups that were also treated as protozoans in the past still have duplicated classifications see ambiregnal protists.
Some parasitic algae e. In other cases, some groups were originally characterized as parasitic algae e. Furthermore, groups like the apicomplexans are also parasites derived from ancestors that possessed plastids, but are not included in any group traditionally seen as algae.
These probably had an isomorphic alternation of generations and were probably filamentous. A range of algal morphologies is exhibited, and convergence of features in unrelated groups is common.
The only groups to exhibit three-dimensional multicellular thalli are the reds and browns , and some chlorophytes. Most of the simpler algae are unicellular flagellates or amoeboids , but colonial and nonmotile forms have developed independently among several of the groups.
Some of the more common organizational levels, more than one of which may occur in the lifecycle of a species, are.
In three lines, even higher levels of organization have been reached, with full tissue differentiation. The innovation that defines these nonalgal plants is the presence of female reproductive organs with protective cell layers that protect the zygote and developing embryo.
Hence, the land plants are referred to as the Embryophytes. Many algae, particularly members of the Characeae species,  have served as model experimental organisms to understand the mechanisms of the water permeability of membranes, osmoregulation , turgor regulation , salt tolerance , cytoplasmic streaming , and the generation of action potentials.
Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants, but in algae, too. Some species of algae form symbiotic relationships with other organisms.
In these symbioses, the algae supply photosynthates organic substances to the host organism providing protection to the algal cells. The host organism derives some or all of its energy requirements from the algae.
Examples are:. Lichens are defined by the International Association for Lichenology to be "an association of a fungus and a photosynthetic symbiont resulting in a stable vegetative body having a specific structure".
In nature they do not occur separate from lichens. It is unknown when they began to associate. A photobiont may be associated with many different mycobionts or may live independently; accordingly, lichens are named and classified as fungal species.
The photobiont possibly triggers otherwise latent genes in the mycobiont. Trentepohlia is an example of a common green alga genus worldwide that can grow on its own or be lichenised.
Lichen thus share some of the habitat and often similar appearance with specialized species of algae aerophytes growing on exposed surfaces such as tree trunks and rocks and sometimes discoloring them.
Coral reefs are accumulated from the calcareous exoskeletons of marine invertebrates of the order Scleractinia stony corals. These animals metabolize sugar and oxygen to obtain energy for their cell-building processes, including secretion of the exoskeleton, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts.
Dinoflagellates algal protists are often endosymbionts in the cells of the coral-forming marine invertebrates, where they accelerate host-cell metabolism by generating sugar and oxygen immediately available through photosynthesis using incident light and the carbon dioxide produced by the host.
Reef-building stony corals hermatypic corals require endosymbiotic algae from the genus Symbiodinium to be in a healthy condition.
Endosymbiontic green algae live close to the surface of some sponges, for example, breadcrumb sponges Halichondria panicea.
Rhodophyta , Chlorophyta , and Heterokontophyta , the three main algal divisions , have lifecycles which show considerable variation and complexity.
In general, an asexual phase exists where the seaweed's cells are diploid , a sexual phase where the cells are haploid , followed by fusion of the male and female gametes.
Asexual reproduction permits efficient population increases, but less variation is possible. Commonly, in sexual reproduction of unicellular and colonial algae, two specialized, sexually compatible, haploid gametes make physical contact and fuse to form a zygote.
To ensure a successful mating, the development and release of gametes is highly synchronized and regulated; pheromones may play a key role in these processes.
The Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium located in the National Museum of Natural History consists of approximately , dried specimens, which, although not exhaustive no exhaustive collection exists , gives an idea of the order of magnitude of the number of algal species that number remains unknown.
Another checklist reports only about 5, species. Regarding the difference of about 15, species, the text concludes: "It will require many detailed field surveys before it is possible to provide a reliable estimate of the total number of species Most estimates also omit microscopic algae, such as phytoplankton.
The most recent estimate suggests 72, algal species worldwide. The distribution of algal species has been fairly well studied since the founding of phytogeography in the midth century.
This dispersal can be accomplished by air, water, or other organisms. Due to this, spores can be found in a variety of environments: fresh and marine waters, air, soil, and in or on other organisms.
The spores of freshwater algae are dispersed mainly by running water and wind, as well as by living carriers. Ocean water presents many vastly different habitats based on temperature and nutrient availability, resulting in phytogeographic zones, regions, and provinces.
To some degree, the distribution of algae is subject to floristic discontinuities caused by geographical features, such as Antarctica , long distances of ocean or general land masses.
It is, therefore, possible to identify species occurring by locality, such as "Pacific algae" or "North Sea algae".
When they occur out of their localities, hypothesizing a transport mechanism is usually possible, such as the hulls of ships.
For example, Ulva reticulata and U. Mapping is possible for select species only: "there are many valid examples of confined distribution patterns.
Algae are prominent in bodies of water, common in terrestrial environments, and are found in unusual environments, such as on snow and ice.
The various sorts of algae play significant roles in aquatic ecology. Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column phytoplankton provide the food base for most marine food chains.
In very high densities algal blooms , these algae may discolor the water and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms. Algae can be used as indicator organisms to monitor pollution in various aquatic systems.
Due to this, the species composition of algal populations may shift in the presence of chemical pollutants. On the basis of their habitat, algae can be categorized as: aquatic planktonic , benthic , marine , freshwater , lentic , lotic ,  terrestrial , aerial subaerial ,  lithophytic , halophytic or euryhaline , psammon , thermophilic , cryophilic , epibiont epiphytic , epizoic , endosymbiont endophytic , endozoic , parasitic , calcifilic or lichenic phycobiont.
Agar , a gelatinous substance derived from red algae, has a number of commercial uses. Alginic acid, or alginate, is extracted from brown algae.
Its uses range from gelling agents in food, to medical dressings. Alginic acid also has been used in the field of biotechnology as a biocompatible medium for cell encapsulation and cell immobilization.
Molecular cuisine is also a user of the substance for its gelling properties, by which it becomes a delivery vehicle for flavours. Between , and , wet tons of Macrocystis are harvested annually in New Mexico for alginate extraction and abalone feed.
To be competitive and independent from fluctuating support from local policy on the long run, biofuels should equal or beat the cost level of fossil fuels.
Here, algae-based fuels hold great promise,   directly related to the potential to produce more biomass per unit area in a year than any other form of biomass.
The break-even point for algae-based biofuels is estimated to occur by For centuries, seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; George Owen of Henllys writing in the 16th century referring to drift weed in South Wales : .
This kind of ore they often gather and lay on great heapes, where it heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley After spring-tydes or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse backes, and carie the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass.
Today, algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers , soil conditioners , and livestock feed.
Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places. Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner.
Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia. They provide many vitamins including: A, B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , niacin , and C , and are rich in iodine , potassium , iron, magnesium , and calcium.
Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70 species, including fat choy , a cyanobacterium considered a vegetable; Japan, over 20 species such as nori and aonori ;  Ireland, dulse ; Chile , cochayuyo.
Sea lettuce and badderlocks are salad ingredients in Scotland , Ireland, Greenland , and Iceland. Algae is being considered a potential solution for world hunger problem.
The oils from some algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Fish oil contains the omega-3 fatty acids, but the original source is algae microalgae in particular , which are eaten by marine life such as copepods and are passed up the food chain.
Scientists developed the ATS, which consists of shallow, foot raceways of nylon netting where algae colonies can form, and studied its efficacy for three years.
They found that algae can readily be used to reduce the nutrient runoff from agricultural fields and increase the quality of water flowing into rivers, streams, and oceans.
Researchers collected and dried the nutrient-rich algae from the ATS and studied its potential as an organic fertilizer. They found that cucumber and corn seedlings grew just as well using ATS organic fertilizer as they did with commercial fertilizers.
Various polymers can be created from algae, which can be especially useful in the creation of bioplastics. These include hybrid plastics, cellulose based plastics, poly-lactic acid, and bio-polyethylene.
The alga Stichococcus bacillaris has been seen to colonize silicone resins used at archaeological sites; biodegrading the synthetic substance.
The natural pigments carotenoids and chlorophylls produced by algae can be used as alternatives to chemical dyes and coloring agents. Carrageenan, from the red alga Chondrus crispus , is used as a stabilizer in milk products.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For places called Alga, see Alga disambiguation. For other uses, see Algae disambiguation.
Diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. An informal term for a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotes.
Temporal range: Mesoproterozoic—present . Further information: wikispecies:Algae. Main article: Lichen. Main articles: Coral , Coral reef , and Symbiodinium.
Main article: Sea sponge. Those that adhere to surfaces are known as benthic algae. Such algae grow on mud, stones, other algae and plants, or animals, according to "Algae.
Algae are also able to survive on land. Some unexpected places where they grow are tree trunks, animal fur, snow banks, hot springs according to "Algae" and in soil, including desert crusts Current Biology, Mostly, algae live independently in their various growth forms single cells, colonies, etc.
One of the benefits of such relationships is that they enable algae to broaden the horizons of their habitats.
As a general rule, algae are capable of photosynthesis and produce their own nourishment by using light energy from the sun and carbon dioxide in order to generate carbohydrates and oxygen.
In other words, most algae are autotrophs or more specifically, photoautotrophs reflecting their use of light energy to generate nutrients. However, there exist certain algal species that need to obtain their nutrition solely from outside sources; that is, they are heterotrophic.
Such species apply a variety of heterotrophic strategies to acquire nutrients from organic materials carbon containing compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Osmotrophy is the absorption of dissolved substances, and phagotrophy involves engulfing bacteria or other such prey. Other algae, known as auxotrophs, need to only acquire essential vitamins such as the B 12 complex or fatty acids according to "Algae".
According to the authors of "Algae," it is widely accepted that the nutritional strategies of algae exist on a spectrum combining photoautotrophy and heterotrophy.
This ability is known as mixotrophy. Algae are capable of reproducing through asexual or vegetative methods and via sexual reproduction.
According to the authors of "Algae," asexual reproduction involves the production of a motile spore, while vegetative methods include simple cell division mitosis to produce identical offspring and the fragmentation of a colony.
Sexual reproduction involves the union of gametes produced individually in each parent through meiosis. These are also referred to as blue-green algae.
Though they are capable of conducting oxygen-producing photosynthesis and live in many of the same environments as eukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria are gram-negative bacteria , and therefore are prokaryotes.
They are also capable of independently conducting nitrogen fixation, the process of converting atmospheric nitrogen to usable forms of the element such as ammonia.
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External Websites. LiveScience - What Are Algae? IndiaNetzone - Algae. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
They play an important role in many ecosystems, including providing the foundation for the aquatic food chains supporting all fisheries in the oceans and inland, as well as producing about 70 percent of all the air we breathe.
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